Saccharin: An artificial sweetener that is used in place of sugar because it has no calories and does not increase blood sugar.
Self-blood glucose monitoring: See home blood glucose monitoring.
Somogyi effect: Also called "rebound effect," it occurs when there is a upward swing in blood sugar from an extremely low level of glucose in the blood to a very high level. It usually happens during the night and early morning hours. People who experience high levels of blood sugar in the morning may need to test their blood sugar levels in the middle of the night. If blood sugar levels are repeatedly low, addition of an evening snack or a lowering of the insulin doses may be recommended.
Sorbitol: A sugar -- produced from fruits -- that the body uses slowly. It is a sweetener used in diet foods and is called a "nutritive sweetener" because it has four calories in every gram, just like table sugar and starch. These compounds are used in many foods labeled as 'sugar free' and 'no sugar added' and can raise your blood glucose. Because a food is labeled 'sugar free,' it doesn't necessarily mean carbohydrate free.
Sucrose: Table sugar; a form of sugar that the body must break down into a more simple form before the blood can absorb it and take it to the cells.
Sugar: A class of carbohydrates that tastes sweet. Sugar is a quick and easy fuel for the body to use. Some types of sugar are lactose, glucose, fructose, and sucrose.
Sulfonylureas: Pills or capsules that people take to lower the level of sugar in the blood. These oral diabetic medications work to lower your blood sugar by making your pancreas produce more insulin.
In type 2 diabetes, the body stops responding efficiently to insulin, a hormone that controls blood sugar. To compensate for the insensitivity to insulin, many diabetes drugs work by boosting insulin levels; for example, by injecting more insulin or by increasing the amount of insulin secreted from the pancreas. The new study, published in the June 9 issue of PLoS ONE, showed that a different approach could also be effective for treating diabetes — namely, blocking the breakdown of insulin, after it is secreted from the pancreas.
The meta-analysis included data from eight observational cohort studies and 11 randomized controlled trials that involved diabetes and measuring vitamin D. The investigators, who were from Tufts Medical Center and Carney Hospital in Massachusetts, found that overall, individuals who consumed more than 500 International Units (IUs) per day of vitamin D had a 13 percent reduced risk of type 2 diabetes when compared with those who consumed less than 200 IU per day.