Glossary of Diabetic Terms - S

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Saccharin: An artificial sweetener that is used in place of sugar because it has no calories and does not increase blood sugar.

Self-blood glucose monitoring: See home blood glucose monitoring.

Somogyi effect: Also called "rebound effect," it occurs when there is a upward swing in blood sugar from an extremely low level of glucose in the blood to a very high level. It usually happens during the night and early morning hours. People who experience high levels of blood sugar in the morning may need to test their blood sugar levels in the middle of the night. If blood sugar levels are repeatedly low, addition of an evening snack or a lowering of the insulin doses may be recommended.

Sorbitol: A sugar -- produced from fruits -- that the body uses slowly. It is a sweetener used in diet foods and is called a "nutritive sweetener" because it has four calories in every gram, just like table sugar and starch. These compounds are used in many foods labeled as 'sugar free' and 'no sugar added' and can raise your blood glucose. Because a food is labeled 'sugar free,' it doesn't necessarily mean carbohydrate free.

Sucrose: Table sugar; a form of sugar that the body must break down into a more simple form before the blood can absorb it and take it to the cells.

Sugar: A class of carbohydrates that tastes sweet. Sugar is a quick and easy fuel for the body to use. Some types of sugar are lactose, glucose, fructose, and sucrose.

Sulfonylureas: Pills or capsules that people take to lower the level of sugar in the blood. These oral diabetic medications work to lower your blood sugar by making your pancreas produce more insulin.

Insulin therapy is all about balance and fine-tuning. It’s normal to experience a challenge or two, especially when you begin the regimen.
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Although accurate and convenient for detecting type 2 diabetes and prediabetes in adults, current HbA1c cutoffs may not be enough to diagnose diabetes in children.

A 2010 clinical practice guideline from the American Diabetes Association recommends that physicians exclusively use the HbA1c assay to detect diabetes. The guidelines recommend a cutoff of 6.5% or greater for diagnosis.

However, researchers for two recent studies highlight significant vulnerabilities in the recommended test’s ability to diagnose diabetes and prediabetes in children.
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