Rebound effect: See somogyi effect.
Regular insulin: A type of insulin that is rapid-acting.
Renal: Relating to the kidneys.
Retina: The center part of the back lining of the eye that senses light. It has many small blood vessels that are sometimes harmed when a person has had diabetes for a long time.
Retinopathy: A disease of the small blood vessels in the retina of the eye.
Risk factor: Anything that increases the chance of a person developing a disease or condition.
Scientists in the United States say shift workers getting too little sleep at the wrong time of the day could be increasing their risk of diabetes.
They have found that changes to normal sleep means the body is unable to control sugar levels.
Recent headlines about cinnamon are the result of an accidental finding in a Maryland USDA research center. Incredibly, the catalyst was as American as good old apple pie, flavored with -- what else -- cinnamon. Scientists were testing the effects of various foods on blood sugar (glucose) levels. They expected the classic pie to have an adverse effect, but instead they found it actually helped lower blood glucose levels.
The researchers then took their surprising discovery and tested it in a small 60 patient study conducted in Pakistan, reporting in the journal Diabetes Care. All the patients had been treated for type 2, adult onset diabetes for several years and were taking anti-diabetic drugs to increase their insulin output. But they were not yet taking insulin to help process their blood glucose. The subjects were given small doses of cinnamon ranging from as little as a quarter teaspoon to less than 2 teaspoons a day for 40 days.