Glossary of Diabetic Terms - C

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Calorie: Energy that comes from food. Some foods have more calories than others. Fats have more calories than proteins and carbohydrate. Most vegetables have few.

Carbohydrate: One of the three main classes of foods and a source of energy. Carbohydrates are mainly sugars and starches that the body breaks down into glucose (a simple sugar that the body can use to feed its cells).

Cardiologist: A doctor who takes care of people with heart disease; a heart specialist.

Cardiovascular: Relating to the heart and blood vessels (arteries, veins, and capillaries).

Certified Diabetes Educator (CDE): A health care professional that is certified by the American Association of Diabetes Educators (AADE) to teach people with diabetes how to manage their condition.

Cholesterol: A waxy, odorless substance made by the liver that is an essential part of cell walls and nerves. Cholesterol plays an important role in body functions such as digestion and hormone production. In addition to being produced by the body, cholesterol comes from animal foods that we eat. Too much cholesterol in the blood causes an increase in particles called LDL (known as bad cholesterol) which increases the build-up of plaque in the artery walls and leads to atherosclerosis.

Clarke Error Grids: A grid established to chart the accuracy of a Blood Glucose Meter reading and to establish an acceptible error factor whereas an inacurate reading, when compared to a lab quality test, may or may not result in improper treatment decision making. The Clarke Error Grid is the predominate measurement of a meters accuracy in leading manufacturers.

Region A are those values within 20% of the reference sensor,
Region B contains points that are outside of 20% but would not lead to inappropriate treatment,
Region C are those points leading to unnecessary treatment,
Region D are those points indicating a potentially dangerous failure to detect hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia, and
Region E are those points that would confuse treatment of hypoglycemia for hyperglycemia and vice-versa.

Clarke Error GridFreeStyle Clarke Error Grid

Claudication: See intermittent claudication.


Coulometry, Coulometric: A technic for determining the amount of matter transformed during an electrolysis reaction through measuring the electricity consumed or produced. The electricity is measured in coulombs, a unit of measuring electron flow.

Recent headlines about cinnamon are the result of an accidental finding in a Maryland USDA research center. Incredibly, the catalyst was as American as good old apple pie, flavored with -- what else -- cinnamon. Scientists were testing the effects of various foods on blood sugar (glucose) levels. They expected the classic pie to have an adverse effect, but instead they found it actually helped lower blood glucose levels.

The researchers then took their surprising discovery and tested it in a small 60 patient study conducted in Pakistan, reporting in the journal Diabetes Care. All the patients had been treated for type 2, adult onset diabetes for several years and were taking anti-diabetic drugs to increase their insulin output. But they were not yet taking insulin to help process their blood glucose. The subjects were given small doses of cinnamon ranging from as little as a quarter teaspoon to less than 2 teaspoons a day for 40 days.

If stress is giving you high blood pressure, blame the immune system. T cells, helpful for fighting infections, are also necessary for mice to show an increase in blood pressure after a period of psychological stress, scientists have found.