Calorie: Energy that comes from food. Some foods have more calories than others. Fats have more calories than proteins and carbohydrate. Most vegetables have few.
Carbohydrate: One of the three main classes of foods and a source of energy. Carbohydrates are mainly sugars and starches that the body breaks down into glucose (a simple sugar that the body can use to feed its cells).
Cardiologist: A doctor who takes care of people with heart disease; a heart specialist.
Cardiovascular: Relating to the heart and blood vessels (arteries, veins, and capillaries).
Certified Diabetes Educator (CDE): A health care professional that is certified by the American Association of Diabetes Educators (AADE) to teach people with diabetes how to manage their condition.
Cholesterol: A waxy, odorless substance made by the liver that is an essential part of cell walls and nerves. Cholesterol plays an important role in body functions such as digestion and hormone production. In addition to being produced by the body, cholesterol comes from animal foods that we eat. Too much cholesterol in the blood causes an increase in particles called LDL (known as bad cholesterol) which increases the build-up of plaque in the artery walls and leads to atherosclerosis.
Clarke Error Grids: A grid established to chart the accuracy of a Blood Glucose Meter reading and to establish an acceptible error factor whereas an inacurate reading, when compared to a lab quality test, may or may not result in improper treatment decision making. The Clarke Error Grid is the predominate measurement of a meters accuracy in leading manufacturers.
Region A are those values within 20% of the reference sensor,
Region B contains points that are outside of 20% but would not lead to inappropriate treatment,
Region C are those points leading to unnecessary treatment,
Region D are those points indicating a potentially dangerous failure to detect hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia, and
Region E are those points that would confuse treatment of hypoglycemia for hyperglycemia and vice-versa.
Claudication: See intermittent claudication.
Coulometry, Coulometric: A technic for determining the amount of matter transformed during an electrolysis reaction through measuring the electricity consumed or produced. The electricity is measured in coulombs, a unit of measuring electron flow.
In type 2 diabetes, the body stops responding efficiently to insulin, a hormone that controls blood sugar. To compensate for the insensitivity to insulin, many diabetes drugs work by boosting insulin levels; for example, by injecting more insulin or by increasing the amount of insulin secreted from the pancreas. The new study, published in the June 9 issue of PLoS ONE, showed that a different approach could also be effective for treating diabetes — namely, blocking the breakdown of insulin, after it is secreted from the pancreas.
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